NatureNeuroanatomyScienceSexual Dimorphism

Sex difference in brain

We often talk about “sex differences in brain”. Although some “sex differences in brain” are almost a myth lacking definitive evidence, there are obvious and robust differences that anyone can easily see. The hypothalamus shows clear sex differences, which are determined by the hormonal environment during development. In other words, the developing brain has sensitivity to hormone, especially testosterone. We found that a transcription factor, PTF1a, is essential for acquiring the sensitivity to hormone milieu during development.
The illustration above is created by Sara Kobayashi, University of Tsukuba, IIIS.

Fujiyama et al. Cell Rep 2018